The studies indicate that fatty acids shorter than 10 carbons are not transported by FATP1, but its ability to carry long fatty acids such as oleate is strong. FATP4 demonstrates the ability to transport saturated and unsaturated long and very long chain fatty acids, but not fatty acid esters or lipid-soluble vitamins Classification of Cellular Fatty Acids Fatty acids (FAs) are components of most cellular lipids, such as glycerolipids, sphingolipids and cholesterol esters. Major FA species include long-chain FAs (LCFAs) with carbon (C) chain lengths of 12-20, although very long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) with C ≥ 22 also exist Very Long Chain Fatty Acids - Peroxisomes play a vital role in several metabolic pathways, including the synthesis of plasmalogens and bile acids. They are also involved in the catabolism of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (VLCFAs), phytanic acid, and pristanic acid
... Long-chain polyunsaturated fats are chains of carbon atoms with multiple double bonds. DHA and arachidonic acid -- ARA -- are the most abundant long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain. Infants can obtain DHA and ARA through breast milk or supplemented formula, while adults and children get them primarily from seafood and eggs The vast majority of fats and oils in our diets, 98% to 100%, whether they are saturated or unsaturated or come from animals or plants, are composed of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Both the saturated and unsaturated fat found in meat, milk, eggs, and plants (including most all vegetable oils) are composed of LCFA The different types of saturated fatty acids can be distinguished by the length of their carbon chains. Here are the most common saturated fatty acids in the human diet: Stearic acid: 18 carbon. Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting reaction of the four reactions that constitute the long-chain fatty acids elongation cycle (PubMed:29496980, PubMed:30487246). This endoplasmic reticulum-bound enzymatic process allows the addition of 2 carbons to the chain of long- and very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) per cycle. Condensing enzyme that exhibits activity toward saturated and.
. As a result of two decades of biochemical studies and genetic identification of the eceriferum (cer) male-sterile mutants, the very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) lipids in the pollen coat have been well known to play a critical role in pollen hydration (Preuss et al., 1993; Fiebig et al., 2000; Hiscock. Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting reaction of the four reactions that constitute the long-chain fatty acids elongation cycle. This endoplasmic reticulum-bound enzymatic process allows the addition of 2 carbons to the chain of long- and very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) per cycle. Condensing enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of very long chain saturated (VLC-SFA) and polyunsaturated. Very long chain fatty alcohols obtained from plant waxes and beeswax have been reported to lower plasma cholesterol in humans. This review discusses nutritional or regulatory effects produced by wax esters or aliphatic acids and alcohols found in unrefined cereal grains, beeswax, and many plant-derived foods
Beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Linear fatty acids containing more than 18 carbons are broken down by beta-oxidation in peroxisomes to yield acetyl-CoA and medium chain-length fatty acyl CoA's such as octanoyl-CoA (Wanders and Waterham 2006) Aveldaño MI. A novel group of very long chain polyenoic fatty acids in dipolyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines from vertebrate retina. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jan 25; 262 (3):1172-1179. [Aveldaño MI, Sprecher H. Very long chain (C24 to C36) polyenoic fatty acids of the n-3 and n-6 series in dipolyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines from bovine retina The synthesis of very long chain (C24 to C36) polyunsaturated (four, five and six double bonds) fatty acids (VLCPUFA) is investigated in bovine retina using [14C]acetate. Saturates on the one hand (mainly palmitate), and polyenes on the other (mainly VLCPUFA), incorporate most of the label found in lipids Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (VLCFA) are those over 18 carbons in length. VLCFA are an indicator of enzyme activity. A dys-regulated SCD1 -PPAR gamma-Elovl1-Elovl3-Elovl4-SREBP axis results in more saturated and monounsaturated VLCFA. Nervonic acid, a monounsaturated VLCFA, is associated with Major Depressive Disorder and Psychosis
Gene ID: 83603, updated on 23-Jun-2021. Summary Other designations. elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4, 3-keto acyl-CoA synthase Elovl4, ELOVL FA elongase 4, ELOVL fatty acid elongase 4, very long chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 4, very long chain 3-oxoacyl-CoA synthase 4. GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions. In contrast to the results seen with the very long chain, saturated fatty acids and alcohols, the velocity of cellular association of TCA and POPC was unaffected by the expression of either CD36 or SR-BI. We observed a similar lack of an effect of CD36 upon uptake with a variety of hydrophobic sterols and sterol derivatives including. Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare genetic disorder of fatty acid metabolism that is transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. It occurs when an enzyme needed to break down certain very long-chain fatty acids is missing or not working properly Collectively, these results support a functional role of fatty acid biosynthesis, and specifically very long chain fatty acids, during necroptosis. Surprisingly we did not observe rescue from cell death using TOFA, a small-molecule inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which is upstream of FASN ( Figure 5 B)
The very‐long‐chain saturated fatty acids were associated with lower risk of both heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The associations were independent of major risk factors for heart failure and similar in subgroups defined by sex, baseline age, body mass index, diabetes mellitus. The fatty acid composition of peanut seed oil from a range of samples included in the core of the core or the 'mini core' of the US peanut germplasm collection was determined using gas chromatography. Oil contents of the seeds ranged from 31.4 to 47.9%. Very long-chain fatty acids are defined as those having more than 22 carbons in chain. normal very long-chain fatty acids is suggestive of Refsum disease (phytanic acid oxidase deficiency); however, serum phytanic acid concentration may also be increased in disorders of peroxisomal biogenesis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of peroxisomal disorders. If results are suggestive of hemizygosity for X-linke
Interpretation: Elevation of the ratio of C26 fatty acids or C24 fatty acids to C22 fatty acids indicates a defect in oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, an exclusively peroxisomal function. This occurs in genetic deficiencies of a specific enzyme in the oxidation pathway (eg, adrenoleukodystrophy), or generalised peroxisomal dysfunction. The VLCAD enzyme catalyzes the initial step of mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids with a chain length of 14 to 20 carbons. Figure 2. VLCAD Biochemical Pathway . Fatty acid oxidation requires entry of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) into the mitochondrial matrix via the carnitine cycle enzymes: Acyl-CoA synthetase (AS Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting reaction of the four reactions that constitute the long-chain fatty acids elongation cycle. This endoplasmic reticulum-bound enzymatic process allows the addition of 2 carbons to the chain of long- and very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) per cycle. Condensing enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyunsaturated very long chain fatty acid (C20- and C22.
Keywords: Anorexia nervosa, AN-restricting type, AN-binge-eating/purging type, Fatty acids, Very long chain fatty acids, Lipid metabolism Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disease that arises from an intense fear of gaining weight and results in extreme weight loss. It is caused by multiple factors, includin differences in fatty acid metabolism was which were related to the elongation of very long chain fatty acids were detected between TN and EP+H-. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of ELOVL1, 5, and 6 were significantly upregulated by 8.5-, 4.6- and 7.0-fold, respectively, in the TN tumors compared with their levels i Very-long-chain fatty acids, formally deﬁned as FA longer than 18 carbons, are extended by an ER membrane-embedded protein complex of 4 enzymes, acting presumably on th
Production of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in oil seed plants Download PDF Info Publication number US8084074B2. US8084074B2 US11/673,843 US67384307A US8084074B2 US 8084074 B2 US8084074 B2 US 8084074B2 US 67384307 A US67384307 A US 67384307A US 8084074 B2 US8084074 B2 US 8084074B2 Authority US United State X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder biochemically characterized by elevated levels of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Excess levels of VLCFAs are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of X-ALD. Therefore, therapeutic approaches for X-ALD are focused on the reduction or normalization of VLCFAs
Synonyms: Anti-TIX1, Anti-elongation of very long chain fatty acids (FEN1/Elo2, SUR4/Elo3, yeast)-like 3, Anti-CIG-30, Anti-KIAA0395. Product Number Adrenoleukodystrophy: effects of dietary restriction of very long chain fatty acids and of administration of carnitine and clofibrate on clinical status and plasma fatty acids. Johns Hopkins Med J. 1982 Oct; 151 (4):164-172 Very Long Chain Fatty Acids. Analysis of very long chain fatty acids in plasma for diagnosis of peroxisomal disorders is not available in the SAS laboratory but is carried out in the Clinical Biochemistry Department at Guy's Hospital. This department also carries out the determination on fibroblasts or chorionic villous cells grown in the SAS.
Elovl4a and Elovl4b, enable the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C 24) fatty acids, compounds with major roles in vision and fertility of vertebrates. The present study confirmed that C. gariepinus possess all the enzymatic capabilities required for the biosynthesis of ARA, EPA and DHA and, therefore, its physiological EFA. Very Long Chain Fatty Acids ( with 20 or more carbon) undergo initial β-oxidation in peroxisomes. why does VLCFA enter perioxisomes? TO SHORTEN THEM, NO ENERGY..bcz its too big to enter the mito. Since the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids takes place in a special location, what is done with FADH2 Long-chain saturated fatty acids are C 14 to C 20, while those with even longer chains are designated very-long-chain fatty acids. As saturated long-chain fatty acids have relatively high melting points, animal fats and seed oils such as palm oil in which these components are especially abundant tend to be solids at room temperature Beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids Stable Identifier. R-MMU-390247. Type. Pathway Peroxisomal uptake of very long-chain fatty acyl CoA (Mus musculus) ECI2 isomerizes 3Z-enoyl-CoA to 2E-enoyl-CoA (Mus musculus Catalyzes the third of the four reactions of the long-chain fatty acids elongation cycle. This endoplasmic reticulum-bound enzymatic process, allows the addition of two carbons to the chain of long- and very long-chain fatty acids/VLCFAs per cycle. This enzyme catalyzes the dehydration of the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA intermediate into trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA, within each cycle of fatty acid elongation
Catalyzes the second of the four reactions of the long-chain fatty acids elongation cycle. This endoplasmic reticulum-bound enzymatic process, allows the addition of two carbons to the chain of long- and very long-chain fatty acids/VLCFAs per cycle. This enzyme has a 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity, reducing 3-ketoacyl-CoA to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA, within each cycle of fatty acid elongation WikiZero Özgür Ansiklopedi - Wikipedia Okumanın En Kolay Yolu . Three-dimensional representations of several fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have perfectly straight chain structure. Unsaturated ones are typically bent, unless they have a trans configuration 1. Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Animals. 2-(R)-Hydroxy fatty acids are conventional lipid components and are important constituents of animal sphingolipids (see our Introduction to sphingolipids, for example).The chain-lengths vary from about C 16 to C 26, and they are normally saturated, although monoenoic components are also known.Sphingomyelin containing 2‑hydroxylated polyenoic very-long-chain. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are lipid metabolism disorders that are caused by a lack or deficiency of the enzymes needed to break down fats, resulting in delayed mental and physical development. Fatty acid oxidation disorders occur when parents pass the defective genes that cause these disorders on to their children
Before n-alkanes (alkanes), long-chain alcohols (alcohols) and long-chain fatty acids (acids) can be used routinely for diet composition estimation, and thorough indoor validation studies are required, particularly in relation with the estimation of faecal recoveries and the evaluation of the accuracy of diet composition estimates (Bugalho et. . D003, acides gras saturés de très longue chaîne, peroxydation lipidique des lipoprotéines. Giga-fren. However, the impact of these long chain saturated fatty acids on CHD is not altogether clear
Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency is a fatty acid oxidation disorder which prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during periods without food.. Those affected by this disorder have inadequate levels of an enzyme that breaks down a group of fats called very long-chain fatty acids Effect of exogenous fatty acids with greater than 22 carbon atoms (very long chain fatty acids) on superoxide production by human neutrophils. J. Immunol. 1994; 153 : 1754-1761 View in Articl Vision scientists long have thought that lack of very long chain fatty acids in photoreceptor cells caused blindness in children with Stargardt type 3 retinal degeneration, an incurable eye. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract. Whereas the physiological significance of microsomal fatty acid elongation is generally appreciated, its molecular nature is poorly understood. Here, we describe tissue-specific regulation of a novel mouse gene family encoding components implicated in the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids So palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid with a chain of sixteen carbon atoms is written as: 16:0 : 1.2. Linolenic acid, an unsaturated fatty acids with three double bonds and a chain length of eighteen carbon atoms becomes: 18:3: 2. The number of non-single bonds is the sum of double and triple (acetylenic) bonds. 2.1
References . Cassagne94: Cassagne C, Lessire R, Bessoule JJ, Moreau P, Creach A, Schneider F, Sturbois B (1994). Biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids in higher plants. Prog Lipid Res 33(1-2);55-69. PMID: 8190743. Domergue00: Domergue F, Chevalier S, Creach A, Cassagne C, Lessire R (2000). Purification of the acyl-CoA elongase complex from developing rapeseed and characterization of. Very Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids Association Results Association results of circulating levels of three very long-chain saturated fatty acids were available for up to 10,129 adults of European descent from 7 GWAS and combined using a z score-based meta-analysis A Sandwich ELISA, Double Antibody ELISA kit for the detection of Homo sapiens, Human, Elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 1, 3-keto acyl-CoA synthase ELOVL1, ELOVL1, SSC1, CGI-88, 22.214.171.124, ELOVL fatty acid elongase 1, ELOVL FA elongase 1
acids, including very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), even-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid (16:0), and odd-chain SFAs pentadecanoic acid (15:0). However, the mechanism of how these fatty acids are synthesized and assembled into the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) is. Qualitative and quantitative compositions of esterified fatty acids (FAs) in the total lipids from the leaves, shoots, and roots of halophile plants, such as suaeda (Suaeda altissima), samphire (Salicornia europaea), and wormwood (Artemisia lerchiana), collected in their natural environments were estimated by GLC techniques. It was shown that the vegetative organs of these halophytes contained. The cerebrosides of skim-milk and fat globules had different fatty acid compositions, those from skim-milk containing predominantly C 18 and shorter chain fatty acids, while C 20-C 25 fatty acids predominated in the fat globules; no hydroxy acids were found in the milk cerebrosides. CDA 日本語. Summary. Linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid, and α-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, are considered essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized by humans. (More information) The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can be synthesized from ALA, but due to low conversion efficiency, it is. LF208556 - JP 2014500723-A/16059: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs. MA444133 - JP 2018138019-A/16059: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs. AF338241 - Homo sapiens elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein-like protein 2 (ELOVL2) mRNA, complete cds. AK125098 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ43108 fis, clone CTONG2021289, highly similar to Homo sapiens ELOVL family member 5, elongation of long.
Either way, it is full of vitamin K, Omega 3 essential fatty acids, fiber, and is a rich source of calcium for healthy bones plus it is low in energy density. A study has found that regularly consuming foods that are low in energy density can be an effective strategy for weight management Long chain (carbon number) Very long chain (carbon number) 1: 2-6: 8-14: ≥16: NA: 2: 2-4: 6-12: 14-22: 24-26: 3a a Chain length only is considered with Classifications 1 and 2. Number of double bonds is considered in addition to chain length with evaluation of Classification 3 and the Individual fatty acids or group. NA: NA: Saturated: 12. . The authors have generated a line of mice deficient in ALD protein (ALDP) by gene targeting. ALDP-deficient mice appeared normal clinically, at least up to 12 mo. Intake of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish and incidence of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam Study. Am Heart J. 2006; 151:857-862. Crossref Medline Google Scholar; 20. Frost L, Vestergaard P. n-3 Fatty acids consumed from fish and risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr.
The existence of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) ranging from 26 to 36 carbons in length in mammal spermatozoa and vertebrate retina was reported in 1986-1987 by Poulos et al. [1, 2] and Aveldaño and Sprecher .Since then, low concentrations of up to C38 VLC-PUFAs have been reported in phosphatidylcholine (PC) of human brain ; triacylglycerides (TG) and. Learning PointCommon fatty acid inborn errors of metabolism include: Very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLDCASD) Initial step of β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids for carbon lengths of 14-20. ADVL genes (autosomal recessive) with elevated metabolites with carbon chain lengths of 12, 14, and 16 . For example, for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 FAs C20-C22 in total did not exceed 0.46% of the total amount of FAs on the 20th day of cultivation (Gong and Miao 2019 )
VLCFAs in plants - Biological relevance The synthesis of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), or fatty acids of more than 20 carbons in length, is a very important process (Domergue etal., 1998). In plants, the major site for the synthesis of VLCFAs is the epidermis, where they are used as precursors for the production of waxes LIST OF PUBLICATIONS This doctoral thesis is based on the work contained in five papers: I. Malin Barman, Sara Johansson, Bill Hesselmar, Agnes Wold, Ann‐Sofie Sandberg and Anna Sandin. High levels of both n‐3 and n‐6 long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cord serum phospholipids predict allergy development
Fatty acid synthase Fatty acid synthesis Fatty aldehyde List of saturated fatty acids List of unsaturated fatty acids List of Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons. Saturated fatty acids have no C Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) Answer true or false. (a) Fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids, with most consisting of between 12 to 20 carbons in an unbranched chain. (b) An unsaturated fatty acid contains one or more carbon- carbon double bonds in its hydrocarbon chain. (c) In most unsaturated fatty acids found in animal fats, vegetable oils, and biological. Elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 3, 3-keto acyl-CoA synthase ELOVL3, CIG30, Cold-inducible glycoprotein of 30 kDa, ELOVL3 Product Number Clonalit
Fatty acids (FAs) with a chain length of more than 18 carbon atoms (> C18) are interesting for the production of specialty compounds derived from these FAs. These compounds include free FAs, like erucic acid (C22:1-Δ13), primary fatty alcohols (FOHs), like docosanol (C22:0-FOH), as well as jojoba-like wax esters (WEs) (C38-WE to C44-WE), which are esters of (very) long-chain FAs and (very. Rat Elongation Of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids Like Protein 1 (ELOVL1) ELISA Kit from MyBioSource.com. Description Test Principle: The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to ELOVL1. Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody. Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFAs may have beneficia Background. Defects of fatty acid oxidation are a group of very rare inborn errors of metabolism.The most common of these disorders, medium-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, occurs in 1:10,000 births. Fatty acids provide an important alternative source of fuel for the body, especially when glucose supplies are low (e.g., when fasting).. Oil from oleaginous seeds is mainly composed of triacylglycerols. Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are major constituents of triacylglycerols in many seed oils and represent valuable feedstock for industrial purposes. To identify genetic factors governing natural variability in VLCFA biosynthesis, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using a recombinant inbred line population derived.
Free fatty acids were esterified very rapidly by heating in 10% sulfuric acid in methanol until the reflux temperature was reached , but this procedure cannot be recommended for polyunsaturated fatty acids, as sulfuric acid is a strong oxidizing agent. 2-Nitrophenylhydrazide derivatives of long-chain fatty acids have been prepared by. A new family of very long chain α, ω-dicarboxylic acids is a major structural fatty acyl component of membrane lipids of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E. J. Lipid Res. 35 : 1057-1065 Answer. Abnormalities of beta oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids. These patients (usually men) present with adrenocortical insufficiency and features of progressive demyelination of the CNS. abbexa Human Elongation Of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids Like Protein 4 (ELOVL4) ELISA Kit SKU: abx387131(
ELOVL4. Official Full Name. ELOVL fatty acid elongase 4. Background. This gene encodes a membrane-bound protein which is a member of the ELO family, proteins which participate in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Consistent with the expression of the encoded protein in photoreceptor cells of the retina, mutations and small deletions in this gene. We found an elevation of very long chain fatty acids in 13 of 22 plasma samples from patients on a ketogenic diet for the treatment of uncontrolled seizures. Because elevated values of very long chain fatty acids are a biochemical manifestation of peroxisomal dysfunction, this phenomenon might lead to diagnostic confusion Six mammalian condensation enzymes, encoded by Elovl (Elogation of very long chain fatty acids) genes in mouse, have presently been identified which suggests multiple elongation pathways. In this report, I present data from studies performed mainly in brown adipose tissue and skin on the role of ELOVL3 in metabolic and structure-related processes
The effective flux between phospholipids and neutral lipids is critical for a high level of biosynthesis and accumulation of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Here we describe a cDNA (PiCPT1) from Phytophthora infestans, a VLCPUFA-producing oomycete. The acyl-coA elongase complex synthesizes very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), and the accumulation of extracellular VLCFA-derived metabolites (leaf epidermal wax components) was affected in MYB30 knockout mutant and overexpressing lines. In the same lines, a lipid extraction procedure allowing high recovery of sphingolipids revealed change Influence of feeding stearidonic acid (18:4n-3)-enriched soybean oil, as compared to conventional soybean oil, on tissue deposition of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in meat-type chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2016 , 217 , 1-12 This finding is of particular interest since the very-long-chain fatty acid excess is by far the most striking in the cholesterol ester fraction in adrenoleukodystrophy. Furthermore, incorporation into cerebroside and sulfatide indicates that at least some of the injected fatty acids were metabolized in the Schwann cell PCSCs display induction of long chain fatty acids and lipid droplets The lipid profile of all four pairs of PCSCs and P cells was obtained, and a total of 755 lipid species were quantified 126.96.36.199. IUBMB Comments. This is the first component of the elongase, a microsomal protein complex responsible for extending palmitoyl-CoA and stearoyl-CoA (and modified forms thereof) to very-long-chain acyl CoAs. Multiple forms exist with differing preferences for the substrate, and thus the specific form expressed determines the local.