Students investigated the effect of removing leaves from a plant shoot on the rate of water uptake. Each student set up a potometer with a shoot that had eight leaves. All the shoots came from the same plant. The potometer they used is shown in the diagram Use your knowledge of leaf structure to suggest three other adaptations that the leaves might have that enable the plants to grow well in dry conditions. 1. _____ 2. _____ 3. _____ (3) (Total 12 marks) Students investigated the effect of removing leaves from a plant shoot on the rate of water uptake. Each student set up a potometer with a shoot. 5 Students investigated the effect of removing leaves from a plant shoot on the rate of water uptake. Each student set up a potometer with a shoot that had eight leaves. All the shoots came from the same plant. The potometer they used is shown in the diagram. 5 (a) Describe how the students would have returned the air bubble to the start of th
In contrast, a longer shoot with 15 leaves total will only lose 33% of the leaf area when 5 basal leaves are pulled. Thus, removing 5 leaves from a short shoot would have a more severe effect of depriving the inflorescence of sugar resources than removing the same number of leaves on long shoots (Figure 3) (b) A scientist investigated the effect of lead pollution by cars on the chlorophyll content of plant leaves. Quadrat sampling was used to collect leaves from a plant species. Leaf samples were collected from an area with little car traffic and from an area with heavy car traffic. The leaf samples were tested for lead content and chlorophyll. Study Jan 2013 Unit 2 flashcards from Francesca Kahn's King Edward VI Camphill Girls class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition Students could manipulate an abiotic factor (light intensity - using lamps, wind speed - using a fan, temperature - using a hair dryer with a hot and cool setting, humidity - by putting the plant in a plastic bag). Students could investigate the proportion of water lost by transpiration and evaporation in a vase of cut flowers using a. Investigate the effect of environmental conditions on water uptake in a plant shoot d by CLEAPSS. Users may need to adapt the risk assessment information to local circumstances. Procedure In this investigation water uptake by a plant shoot is measured under different environmental conditions using a bubble potometer
Students should let you know if they find the plant sap irritating to their skin; Ensure the room is well ventilated to remove small amounts of noxious gases that are given off by some plant materials; Equipment. Large leafy shoot - the end must be cut and kept under water; Capillary tubing with a short rubber connection tube attached at one en of a plant due to water loss, or by measuring the volume of water absorbed. Decrease in mass. The decrease in mass of a plant due to transpiration can be investigated using the following method Keep removing leaves until all the leaves are off the plant shoot. Label the leaves as you remove them, then estimate their area by placing on squared paper and tracing their outlines. Add together the areas of the leaves to find the total area and multiply by two to get the total surface area, as each leaf has an upper and a lower side (a) A student carried out the following investigation using a plant with variegated leaves. A variegated leaf has green and white stripes. The student: • left the plant in the dark for 3 days to remove the starch • fixed two pieces of card to a leaf on the plant • left the plant in the light for 2 day The overexpression plants also showed reduced plant stature and fewer pods per plant, resulting in reduced grain yield per plant, compared to the WT (Figure 6F, 6J-6L). These results support the notion that AP1a (and perhaps the three other AP1 homologs as well) participate in the regulation of flowering time and stem growth habit in soybean
(b) A class of students investigated the number of stomata per mm2 on the upper surface and on the lower surface of the leaves of three species of plant, P, Q and R. The students placed samples of the surface cells onto a grid on a microscope. Student X counted the stomata on the lower surface of a leaf from one of the plant species Transpiration is important in plants for three major reasons: Cooling of the plant: the loss of water vapour from the plant cools down the plant when the weather is very hot.; The transpirational pull: when the plant loses water through transpiration from the leaves, water and mineral salts from the stem and roots moves, or is `pulled', upwards into the leaves
This protocol allows students to investigate the effects of the hormone auxin (Indole Acetic Acid or IAA) as a plant growth regulator, giving opportunities to look at auxiliary bud development, root development, and leaf abscission in Coleus.The method is suitable for independent investigations by students As a minimum students should measure the rate of transpiration for their plant specimen in a pre-prepared potometer. All the students need to do to start the investigation is to use the syringe to return the water level in the graduated pipette to zero (or just take an initial reading so long as the water level is high enough) A student did an experiment using the procedure in question #2. Draw what in the column labeled Drawing of shoot you would expect to see growth. Light source angle Drawing of shoot degrees 45 degrees 90 degrees growth 4. a. What variables should the student have kept constant during b
Required practical activity 8 Investigate the effect of light or gravity on the growth of newly germinated seedlings. Record the results of the seeds' length measurements and create a labelled. Therefore, the effects of flower bud or shoot removal on plant growth, flowering, and yield were investigated. In indeterminate cultivar, the lateral shoot of the second node below TFB was suppressed by flower bud removal but not by shoot removal compared with untreated plants. In determinate cultivar, the opposite results were observed Plants also move toward the light. Seeds push little leaves up from the ground into the light. A house plant in a dark room will grow toward the light. This movement in response to light is called phototropism. When a plant moves toward the light, it's called positive tropism. When a plant moves away from light, it's called negative tropism (c) A student used the apparatus shown in Fig. 2.1 to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis of the leaves of Chinese plantain, Plantago asiatica, at two different concentrations of carbon dioxide, A and B. Fig. 2.2 shows the results of the investigation. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 rate of photosynthesis / μmol per.
(b) Students investigated the effect of different conditions on water loss from leaves. The apparatus is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 The students set up four flasks, A, B, C and D. The students: • used the same size plant shoot in each flas Protocol: (1) Remove the young twigs from a healthy plant. Cut the tip (1 cm) portion of the twig. (2) Surface sterilize the shoot apices by incubation in a sodium hypochlorite solution (1% available chlorine) for 10 minutes. The ex- plants are thoroughly rinsed 4 times in sterile distilled water. (3) Transfer each explants to a sterilized. 6 A plant has leaves that are green in the centre but white around the edges. The plant is destarched and then has one of its leaves partly covered with black paper on both sides of the leaf, as shown. black paper white area of leaf green area of leaf The plant is placed in bright light for 48 hours. The leaf is then tested for starch Students are instructed to place leafy celery stalks into color water in a beaker overnight. The following day, the students observed the color of the celery leaves changed from green to red. The students cut across the edge of the celery and observed the small tube openings along the edge are also red Time-lapse of a pea plant growing from seed, showing both the shoot and root system. You can license an updated version of this video for commercial purposes..
.€€€€€€€€ A student removed three similar leaves from a plant. The student spread petroleum jelly (a waterproofing substance) on some of the leaves, as follows: Leaf A: on the lower surface Leaf B: on the upper surface Leaf C: none. The student placed each leaf in a separate beaker. He weighed each beaker at intervals. Th The broad-leaved dock leaf is usually wider near the base than near the tip, whereas clustered dock has less of a change in width from one end of the leaf to the other. Fiddle dock gets its name from being shaped like a fiddle or violin, so is easier to differentiate from broad-leaved dock. As with many weeds, the leaves that grow from the base. Students used a potometer to investigate how different treatments of the leaves affected the rate of water uptake in plant shoots. The diagram shows a potometer. (b) Name another piece of apparatus needed by the students to work out the rate of water uptake in the plant shoot. [1 mark] scale air bubble water syringe 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20. The students set up four flasks, A, B, C and D. The students: used the same size plant shoot in each flask recorded the mass of the flask and plant shoot at the start of each experiment left each flask and plant shoot in different conditions recorded the mass of each flask and plant shoot after 2 hours
Plant growth and geographic distribution are greatly affected by the environment. Either directly or indirectly, most plant problems are caused by environmental stress. Environmental factors that affect plant growth include light, temperature, water, humidity, and nutrition Auxins are plant hormones and they are responsible for causing the responses of plants to light and gravity (it is still unclear how plants respond to water!). The response of the plant is the result of an uneven distribution of auxin in the growing shoot or root. This causes an unequal growth rate, and as a result the shoot or root bends Produced by Science & Plants for Schools (SAPS), this activity enables students to investigate the effects of the plant hormone indole acetic acid (IAA) on root growth in mustard seedlings. Different concentrations of IAA appear to have differing effects on root growth. These effects may vary from one species to another but generally at low concentrations IAA stimulates root growth while at.
. Aim. Remove the leafy shoot from the straw and set aside, keeping the stem submerged, allowing the water lost from the plant to collect inside the bag. Try not to crush the leaves of the plant with the bag (c) A student investigated the transpiration rates of two different plants A and B. The results of the investigation are shown in Table 5.1. Table 5.1 estimate of transpiration rate / arbitrary units reading plant A plant B 1 45 107 2 39 99 3 41 106 4 46 101 5 38 103 mean 42 (i) Calculate the mean estimated transpiration rate for plant B
A hyperaccumulator is (1) a plant that accumulates in its tissues 10-500 times more metals than plants growing in uncontaminated areas (Branquinio et al., 2007) and (2) plants in which the ratio of metal concentration in the aboveground and underground parts is greater than 1 (Branquinio et al., 2007). From: Handbook of Bioremediation, 2021 Plants respond to changes in their environment using chemicals known as plant hormones or plant growth regulators. A student carried out a two-part experiment to identify the contents of two unlabelled bottles, J and K. One bottle contained auxin and the other contained gibberellin. In Part 1 of the experiment, 30 seedlings had their shoot tips.
2. Cover part of a leaf using aluminium foil. 3. Place the plant in bright sunshine for 12 hours 4. Remove a leaf from the plant 5. Put the leaf in boiling water for 1 minute (to destroy the cell membranes so that chlorophyll molecules can pass through) 6. Heat the leaf in boiling ethanol (to remove/dissolve the green chlorophyll from leaf) 7 Plant tissue culture is the aseptic culture of cells, tissues, or organs under defined physicochemical conditions, and is an important tool in basic and applied research and commercial applications (Thorpe 2007).Thus, many researchers have attempted to increase propagation efficiency in plant tissue culture (Gahan and George 2008).The wide use of tissue culture has promoted the vegetative. Know how to determine water uptake in a leafy shoot. Be able to investigate the effect of environmental conditions on water uptake. Apparatus. 1 large leafy shoot ; Dry the leaves by blotting them gently with paper towels. I should perform the experiment with 3 other plants of the same species and age to ensure reliability. I could also. Shoot Removal Changes the Quality of Photosynthetic Complexes in Root Chloroplasts. To evaluate the effect of shoot removal on the quality of the photosynthetic apparatus in root chloroplasts, we analyzed the transient kinetics of Chl fluorescence using a logarithmic timing series in the wild type
Leaves start to wither and dry out, turning yellowish brown to brown. Symptoms. The whole plant looks pale to yellowish green; Early senescence of older leaves; Increased root growth and stunted shoot growth results in a low shoot/root ratio; Important processes. Nitrogen is very mobile in both soil and the plant. Nitrogen uptake may be reduced. Students create a simple plant experiment chamber, and use corn or bean seeds to test the effects of gravity (gravitropism) on root growth. This activity is from the Plants in Space Teacher's Guide, and is appropriate for all grade levels Aquatic plants can be used to demonstrate oxygen evolution in the process of photosynthesis. In theory, when an aquatic plant is placed in a solution containing a source of carbon dioxide (CO 2), in the presence of light of appropriate intensity, the plant will photosynthesise and produce bubbles of oxygen-containing gas. These bubbles can be. In this lesson plan, your students will investigate how changes in a plant's environment, like the direction of gravity, affect the shape of its growing roots over a period of several days. NGSS Alignment This lesson helps students prepare for these Next Generation Science Standards Performance Expectations: MS-LS1-5. Construct a scientific.
The age of the plants at harvest is indicated for each individual experiment. Bud enriched material was obtained from rosettes by removing all leaves as well as the hypocotyl, leaving only the inner stem regions and shoot apex. For vascular enriched material, the leaf mid-veins of three plants were dissected and pooled Elements Affecting the Growth of Bean Plants. Rich in protein and fiber, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are hardy vegetables that thrive in warm weather and sunshine. Beans fall under three primary. Acid rain is an environmental problem that concerns many environmental and chemical engineers. Engineers are always considering the possible effects of acid rain on the health of humans and the environment when they investigate damage to bodies of water, wildlife, forests and crops, and contamination of the drinking water supply Chapter 23: Plant Evolution and Diversity 1. Describe the traits that enabled plants to adapt to life on land. 2. Identify the features present in the ancestor of land plants that helped give rise to the land plants. 3. Identify the role of each generation in the alternation of generations life cycle. 4
Basic requirements Cocoa trees are tropical plants and grow best in humid conditions at temperatures between 18 and 32°C (65-90°F). It is typically grown in regions where daytime humidity reaches up to 100% and night time humidity is between 70 and 80%. The plants require a deep, fertile and well-draining soil with a pH of 5.0-7.5 for optimum development The effect of soil pH on arsenic extraction was also investigated. Results indicate that increasing soil pH may improve arsenic removal. Indian mustard plants (Brassica juncea) were used under greenhouse conditions to phytoextract soil lead. EDTA was applied to soil and was found to improve lead extraction Plants often increase ethylene production in response to stress, and ethylene often is found in high concentrations within cells at the end of a plant's life. The increased ethylene in leaf tissue in the fall is part of the reason leaves fall off trees. Ethylene also is used to ripen fruit (e.g., green bananas). Abscisic aci Procedure. Get six small plants, three with wide leaves and three with narrow leaves. Use the masking tape and pen to give each one a number. Water the plants until water comes out of the bottom of the pot. If the plants are really dry when you start, water them thoroughly and wait a few minutes. Then, water them again of the plant in treatment group IV, but the plant cannot send the signal to the rest of the plant in treatment group V. Sample: 5B . Score: 3 . The response earned 1 point in part (a) for supporting the claim by saying that when the tip of the plant was removed the plant shoot did not shift toward the light
One of a series of resources from Science & Plants for Schools (SAPS) investigating key topics in plant biology. This activity allows students to investigate many factors that influence seed germination, including temperature, light, nutrient levels, pollutant effects, tropisms and so on. It provides a convenient, cheap and replicable method that can be used by the whole class, or by. A student sets up a controlled experiment to test the effect of a fertilizer on plant growth. They use 2 tomato plants, one is given 1 cup of water every day, 1 cup of fertilizer every week and daily sun and constant temperature. The second plant is given ½ cup of water every day, no fertilizer and sun every other day and constant temperature Common Misconceptions about Plants. Plants are one of the first science topics taught in elementary school. Students plant seeds, grow and measure plants, observe the life cycle, and learn about plant structures and functions. This is in keeping with the National Science Education Standards, which states that students in grades K-4 should. Investigate the effect of a range of concentrations of salt or sugar solutions on the mass of plant tissue - Higher tier only Q1. A student investigated the effect of different sugar solutions on potato tissue. This is the method used. 1. Add 30 cm3 of 0.8 mol dm−3 sugar solution to a boiling tube. 2
Thus he concluded that the Darwin's 'influence' was a water soluble chemical, capable of diffusing through the agar / gelatin from the tip where it was produced to the lower, elongating part of the shoot where it had its effect. This water soluble 'influence was later identified as the plant hormone auxin . SURVEY. 180 seconds. Q. A student wanted to investigate the effect of light on the rate of ripening of tomatoes. She set up four pots of the same size with identical amounts of soil, water, and type of tomato plants. Each plant was exposed to a different intensity of light as shown in the table below The leaves will start to develop brown around the edges, and they will start to yellow. There can be drooping of the stem and leaves, even if it seems that you are watering it enough. Plants that have gotten a little unhealthy due to lack of sun are easily treated by moving them to a brighter spot or adding new lights of your own Determination of the Effect of Environmental Conditions on Transpiration Rates in Plants: The rate of transpiration of a plant varies from day to day, from hour to hour and, frequently, still more rapidly. A number of environmental or internal plant factors determine the rate of water loss in the form of vapour by the plants plants. There is a tiny plant inside the seed that starts to grow when it has all the things that it needs. The tiny plant inside the seed is called an embryo. The seed also has a food store. Bean seeds are found inside a pod. This apple has been cut in half to show the seeds. An avocado pear has one large seed. A poppy's fruit contains the.
Tillers are very important to understanding grass growth and regrowth. Unfortunately the term has many synonyms and is sometimes confusing. Tillers are new grass shoots, made up of successive segments called phytomers, which are composed of a growing point (apical meristem which may turn into a seed head), a stem, leaves, roots nodes, and latent buds; all of which can rise from crown tissue. After the shoot emerges, the seedling grows slowly while the storage tissue of the seed diminishes. Soon, the plant develops a branched root system or taproot. Then, true leaves that look like the leaves of the mature plant appear. These leaves, unlike cotyledons, photosynthesize light into energy, allowing the plant to grow and develop Text for 'Transpiration - Water Movement through Plants' Tracy M. Sterling, Ph.D., 2004 Department of Entomology, Plant Pathology and Weed Science New Mexico State University firstname.lastname@example.org In plant shoots, auxin stimulates cell elongation, so the shoots grow away from the statoliths, and thus gravity. The interactions of phototropism and gravitropism were investigated in order to ascertain which of the two tropisms would exhibit a more dominate effect on plants. Phototropism was set against the effect of gravitropism by placing 4. So an individual shoot may be headed 2 or 3 times during a summer. This repeated heading supposedly would induce flower bud formation on the shoot and the removal of leaves supposedly suppressed vegetative growth the following season by reducing the amount of stored carbohydrates in the tree for spring growth
Removal of all the unfurled leaves of the plant at this stage (by frost or hail) may result in a 10% to 20% reduction in final grain yield. Flooding at this or any earlier stage when the growing point is below ground can kill the corn plants in a few days, especially if temperatures are high Shoot branching is an important trait of plants that allows them to adapt to environment changes. Strigolactones (SLs) are newly identified plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching in plants. The SL biosynthesis genes CCD7 (carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7) and CCD8 have been found to regulate branching in several herbaceous plants by taking advantage of their loss-of-function mutants 0 3 . 3 How could the student improve the investigation so that a valid estimate can be made? [2 marks] Tick two boxes. Weigh the clover plants Compare their results with another student's results Count the leaves of the clover plants Place more quadrats Place the quadrats in a line across the fiel
The 17-Year Cicadas Can Damage Your Trees. May 04, 2021 News Release. Fruit tree growers should wrap young trees with small-gauge netting or fabric to protect the branches from periodical cicada egg laying damage. Shown is an apple tree wrapped with nylon tulle fabric. Image by F. Hale, courtesy UTIA Likewise, students consider variables that might affect the floating disk procedure itself. These variables are compiled and categorized to serve as a guide for student questions and experimental design, as illustrated in Table 1. Table 1. Variables Affecting Rate of Photosynthesis Environmental Variables Plant or Leaf Variables Method Variable A shoot begins to grow from the base of the plant and may become as large as the original plant. Damaged plants may develop misshapen ears in place of the tassel. Some herbicides can cause similar injury to developing corn. However, stink bugs will leave styletes in the plant tissue at the site of feeding The translocation of manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) was compared considering root-to-shoot transport, and redistribution in the root system and in the shoot, as well as the content at different stages of cluster roots and in other roots.To investigate the redistribution of these heavy metals, lupin plants were. Tropical rainforests are home to more species of plants and animals than anywhere else on Earth. They support 90,000 of the 250,000 plant species. A typical four square mile, the rainforest can contain as many as 1,500 species of flowering plants, 750 species of trees, 125 mammal species, 400 species of birds, 100 species of reptiles, 60 amphibians, and 150 diverse species of butterflies
Paal (1918) demonstrated that replacement of the coleoptile tip on the cut end of the shoot, unevenly would cause curvature towards the otherside eventhough there is no light (experiment being conducted in darkness) 1 his indicates the presence of a diffusible substance at the tip. F.W. Went (1917) finally provided the proof for the presence of a curvature inducing substance Tim Robberts/Stone/Getty Images. The two main functions of roots are to deliver water and nutrients to the plant or tree and provide an anchor that keeps the plant or tree in the soil. Roots are generally the first part of any plant that emerges during germination. Roots should not be confused with stems, since roots grow down below the surface. IAA is a substance that promotes the growth of cells in plants. It is produced in the tips of shoots. The shoots of seedlings grow towards a unidirectional light source as shown in the diagram below. (a) Explain the benefit to the seedling of the response shown in the diagram It grows towards light for photosynthesis (this is a
To address this question, students analyze data from research on changes in plant biomass and relevant processes in plant cells. Then, students conduct an experiment to evaluate changes in CO2 concentration in the air around plants in the light vs. dark. Students interpret the data to understand how photosynthesis makes an essential. 9 A potometer is a piece of apparatus that is used to measure water uptake by plants. For Examiner's Use Most of the water taken up by plants replaces water lost in transpiration. A student used a potometer to investigate the effect of wind speed on the rate of water uptake by a leafy shoot. As the shoot absorbs water the air bubble moves upwards What do plants need? Students examine the effects of light and air on green plants, learning the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration. Student teams plant seeds, placing some in sunlight and others in darkness. They make predictions about the outcomes and record ongoing observations of the condition of the stems, leaves and roots. Then, several healthy plants are placed in glass jars.
Students Indicate Free Score Recipients. Students can send their scores for free to one recipient every year that they take AP Exams. They need to sign in to My AP, go to My AP Profile, select the Score Send tab, and choose the college, university, or scholarship organization that they want to receive their score report Scientists investigated the effect of 2,4-D on wheat plants (a crop) and on wild oat plants (a weed). They grew plants of both species in glasshouses. They put plants of each species into one of two groups, W and H, which were treated as follows: • Group W - leaves sprayed with wate All plants need a nutrient called phosphorus to grow and thrive. Phosphorus is found in soil, but the supply is limited so plants often struggle to acquire enough of it. To overcome this problem, many plants form friendly relationships (or symbioses) with certain fungi in the soil known as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The fungi colonize plant roots and supply phosphorus and other nutrients in. Activity 7: Effect of Environment on Plant Growth. The purpose of this activity is to demonstrate the effect of changes in the environment on the growth and fertility of landscape grasses and crop grasses such as wheat and rice. You will place the plants in environments such as high salinity, cold, heat, or drought and observe the different. Likewise, if you plant a seed upside down, the roots will still grow downward, while the shoot will still grow upward. Plants that grow on steep hillsides are great examples of geotropism You are conducting an experiment designed to investigate the effect of chemicals upon plants. Two groups of plants (Group 1 and Group 2) were planted in identical pots, with identical soils, in identical lighting and temperature environments, receiving identical amounts of water and fertilizer